Saturday, February 11, 2012

Ratnagiri

RATNAGIRI

Ratnagiri is located along the southwest parts of the konkan region in Maharashtra. It lies on the west cost near the Arabian sea. the shayadri ranges from one side and the sea from other surround ratnagiri. it is  one of the very important ports of the konkan costs.
The shayadri  mountains border Ratnagiri to the east.Heavy Rainfall results in highly eroded landscape in the costal region, but fertile alluvial valley in the region produce abundent rice, coconuts,cashew nuts, and fruits,"HAPUS"mangoes being one of the main fruits. Fishing is an important industry in ratnagiri.
About Transport  
ROAD
Ratnagiri is connected by road to mumbai, manglaru,madgoan,karwar,udupi, and cochinby National Highway number-17(NH-17). The Konkan railway also connects to these places by train along with Delhi and Jaipur.
Ratnagiri -Nagpur National Highway NH-204 connects Ratnagiri to important cities like Kolapur,Sangli,Solapur,Nanded,Nagpur and eastern parts of india.

Saturday, February 4, 2012

GITA SAAR

गीता सार 
  • क्यों व्यर्थ की चिंता करते हो? किससे व्यर्थ डरते हो? कौन तुम्हें मार सक्ता है? अात्मा ना पैदा होती है, न मरती है।
  • जो हुअा, वह अच्छा हुअा, जो हो रहा है, वह अच्छा हो रहा है, जो होगा, वह भी अच्छा ही होगा। तुम भूत का पश्चाताप न करो। भविष्य की चिन्ता न करो। वर्तमान चल रहा है।
  • तुम्हारा क्या गया, जो तुम रोते हो? तुम क्या लाए थे, जो तुमने खो दिया? तुमने क्या पैदा किया था, जो नाश हो गया? न तुम कुछ लेकर अाए, जो लिया यहीं से लिया। जो दिया, यहीं पर दिया। जो लिया, इसी (भगवान) से लिया। जो दिया, इसी को दिया।
  • खाली हाथ अाए अौर खाली हाथ चले। जो अाज तुम्हारा है, कल अौर किसी का था, परसों किसी अौर का होगा। तुम इसे अपना समझ कर मग्न हो रहे हो। बस यही प्रसन्नता तुम्हारे दु:खों का कारण है।
  • परिवर्तन संसार का नियम है। जिसे तुम मृत्यु समझते हो, वही तो जीवन है। एक क्षण में तुम करोड़ों के स्वामी बन जाते हो, दूसरे ही क्षण में तुम दरिद्र हो जाते हो। मेरा-तेरा, छोटा-बड़ा, अपना-पराया, मन से मिटा दो, फिर सब तुम्हारा है, तुम सबके हो।
  • न यह शरीर तुम्हारा है, न तुम शरीर के हो। यह अग्नि, जल, वायु, पृथ्वी, अाकाश से बना है अौर इसी में मिल जायेगा। परन्तु अात्मा स्थिर है - फिर तुम क्या हो?
  • तुम अपने अापको भगवान के अर्पित करो। यही सबसे उत्तम सहारा है। जो इसके सहारे को जानता है वह भय, चिन्ता, शोक से सर्वदा मुक्त है।
  • जो कुछ भी तू करता है, उसे भगवान के अर्पण करता चल। ऐसा करने से सदा जीवन-मुक्त का अानंन्द अनुभव करेगा

Friday, February 3, 2012

MUNSHI PREMCHAND

MUNSHI PREMCHAND
A pioneer of modern Hindi and Urdu social fiction, Munshi Premchandâs real name was Dhanpat Rai. He wrote nearly 300 stories and novels. Among his best known novels are: Sevasadan, Rangmanch, Gaban, Nirmala and Godan. Much of Premchandâs best work is to be found among his 250 or so short stories, collected in Hindi under the title Manasarovar.Three of his novels have been made into films.Premchandâs literary career started as a freelancer in Urdu. He was born at Lamahi near Banaras (now Varanasi) on 31st July,1880. His father Munshi Ajaib Lal was a clerk in the postal department. Premchandâs early education was in a madarsa under a maulvi, where he learnt Urdu. Premchand was only eight years old when his mother died. His grandmother took the responsibility of raising him but she too died soon. He was married when he was 15 and in the 9th grade . His father also died and after passing the intermediate he had to stop his study. He got a job as a teacher in the primary school. In 1919, he passed his B.A., with English, Persian and History. After a series of promotions he became Deputy Inspectors of Schools. In response to Mahatma Gandhiâs call of non-cooperation with the British he quit his job. After that he devoted his full attention to writing. His first story appeared in the magazine Zamana published from Kanpur.In his early short stories he depicted the patriotic upsurge that was sweeping the land in the first decade of the past century. Soz-e-Watan, a collection of patriotic stories published by Premchand in 1907, attracted the attention of the British Government In 1914, when Premchand switched over to Hindi, he had already established his reputation as a fiction writer in Urdu. While writing Urdu novels and short stories he emphasised in presenting the realities of life and he made the Indian villages his theme of writing. His novels describe the problems of the urban middle-class and the countryâs villages and their problems. He also emphasised on the Hindu-Muslim unity. His famous works include Godan, Maidan-e-Amal, Bay-wah, Chaugaan etc.It would not be wrong to say that Premchand was the Father of Urdu short- stories. Short stories or afsanas were started by Premchand. As with his novels, his afsanas also mirror the society that he lived in. With a simple and flowing writing some of his works depict excellent use of satire and humour. His later works used very simple words and he started including Hindi words too to honestly potray his characters. His famous afsanas are Qaatil Ki Maan, Zewar Ka Dibba, Gilli Danda, Eidgaah, Namak Ka Daroga and Kafan. His collected stories have been published as Prem Pachisi, Prem Battisi, Wardaat and Zaad-e-Raah. Premchand was the first Hindi author to introduce realism in his writings. He pioneered the new form - fiction with a social purpose.He supplemented Gandhijiâs work in the political and social fields by adopting his revolutionary ideas as themes for his literary writings. Besides being a great novelist,Premchand was also a social reformer and thinker.His greatness lies in the fact that his writings embody social purpose and social criticism rather than mere entertainment. Literature according to him is a powerful means of educating public opinion.He believed in social evolution and his ideal was equal opportunities for all.Premchand died in 1936 and has since been studied both in India and abroad as one of the greatest writers of the century.

Adaptations of Premchand's works

Satyajit Ray filmed two of Premchand's works– Sadgati and Shatranj Ke Khiladi. Sadgati (Salvation) is a short story revolving around poor Dukhi, who dies of exhaustion while hewing wood for a paltry favor. Shatranj ke Khiladi (The Chess Players) revolved around the decadence ofnawabi Lucknow, where the obsession with a game consumes the players, making them oblivious of their responsibilities in the midst of a crisis.
Sevasadan (first published in 1918) was made into a film with M.S. Subbulakshmi in the lead role. The novel is set in Varanasi, the holy city of Hindus. Sevasadan ("House of Service") is an institute built for the daughters of courtesans. The lead of the novel is a beautiful, intelligent and talented girl called Suman. She belongs to a high caste. She is married to a much older, tyrannical man. She realizes that a loveless marriage is just like prostitution except that there is only one client. Bholi, a courtesan, lives opposite Suman. Suman realizes that Bholi is "outside purdah", while she is "inside it". Suman leaves her husband and becomes a successful entertainer of gentlemen. But after a brief period of success, she ends up as a victim of a political drama played out by self-righteous Hindu social reformers and moralists.
Premchand also worked with the film director Himanshu Rai of Bombay Talkies, one of the founders of Bollywood.
The Actor Factor Theatre Company, a young Delhi based theatre group, staged Kafan in 2010 in New Delhi. It is an original stage adaptation of Premchand's short story. Kafan is a dark comedy. In the play, puppetry is explored to depict the tussle between two classes and the plight of Budhia, who is caught in the crossfire. Bleakness of hope in the story and awfulness of the father-son duo find a delicate balance. At times the situations break into morbid humor. In the end a wine-house becomes the stage for Ghisu (father) and Madhav's (son) rebellious dance, defying not only the laws of the land but also that of the Gods.

Wednesday, February 1, 2012

Eassy of Environmental pollution

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION


Our environment means the surrounding of our house where we live, the surrounding of our village where we live or the surrounding of our town or city where we live.
It our surrounding gets polluted we suffer from many kinds of disease and sickness. If our surrounding gets highly polluted, our life gets endangered.
Environmental pollution is the biggest menace to the human race on this planet today. It means adding impurity to environment. The environment consists of earth, water, air, plants and animals. If we pollute them, then the existence of man and nature will be hampered.
It is true that trees are being cut down rapidly. Our earth is becoming warmer. If pollution continues, the day is not far when our earth will be a boiling pan and become a desert. Or it will be covered with sea water causing destruction of mankind.
 Effects of Pollution
Effects of pollution on the climate ar/dangeror.s – though so slow and gradual as to be beyond easy recognition.” Air pollution results in the steady rise in the amount of carbon dioxide and dust particles in the atmosphere. Increase in carbon dioxide raises the earth’s temperature while increase in the dust particles decreases it. An increase either way means change away from the mean. According to an estimate dust particles can absorb 3 to 4 per cent of the sun’s radiation, and thus lower the earth’s temperature by about 0’4°C.
Environmental pullution is no longer only a fashionable catch-Word. It has infact become one of the most formidable threats to mankind. With the growing development of technology and growing world population, pollution is no longer restricted to a certain number of industrial countries but affects the ecological system of vtiit areas. As we become increasingly aware of our limited natural roiources, the protection and preservation of nature becomes a world-wide concern.

Tuesday, January 31, 2012

Article on Global Warming

GLOBAL WARMING

Global warming is the unusually rapid increase in Earth’s average surface temperature over the past century primarily due to the greenhouse gases released as people burn fossil fuels. The global average surface temperature rose 0.6 to 0.9 degrees Celsius (1.1 to 1.6° F) between 1906 and 2005, and the rate of temperature increase has nearly doubled in the last 50 years. Temperature are certain to go up further.

Over the last three decades of the 20th century, gross domestic product per capita and population growth were the main drivers of increases in greenhouse gas emissions.CO2 emissions are continuing to rise due to the burning of fossil fuels and land-use change.Emissions can be attributed to different regions. The two figures opposite show annual greenhouse gas emissions for the year 2005, including land-use change. Attribution of emissions due to land-use change is a controversial issue.
Emissions scenarios, estimates of changes in future emission levels of greenhouse gases, have been projected that depend upon uncertain economic, sociological, technological, and natural developments. In most scenarios, emissions continue to rise over the century, while in a few, emissions are reduced.. Fossil fuel reserves are abundant, and will not limit carbon emissions in the 21st century.Emission scenarios, combined with modelling of the carbon cycle, have been used to produce estimates of how atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases might change in the future. Using the six IPCC SRES "marker" scenarios, models suggest that by the year 2100, the atmospheric concentration of CO2 could range between 541 and 970 ppm. This is an increase of 90–250% above the concentration in the year 1750.
The popular media and the public often confuse global warming with ozone depletion, i.e., the destruction of stratospheric ozone by chlorofluorocarbons. Although there are a few areas of linkage, the relationship between the two is not strong. Reduced stratospheric ozone has had a slight cooling influence on surface temperatures, while increased tropospheric ozonehas had a somewhat larger warming effect.

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